Previous studies have demonstrated the extent of cost variation among hospitalists and general internists, both
across dierent hospitals and within the same hospital (see, e.g., JAMA 2017), but the same cannot be said for more
targeted specialists such as cardiology or pulmonology. It’s assumed that hospitalists and other generalists have a
greater degree of cost variation than do specialists, but to our knowledge, no prior study has measured the variance
in cost by provider specialty.